Identification of a strong and specific antichlamydial N-acylhydrazone

Zhang, Huirong; Kunadia, Anuj; Lin, Yingfu; Fondell, Joseph D.; Seidel, Daniel; Fan, Huizhou
October 2017
PLoS ONE;10/03/2017, Vol. 12 Issue 10, p1
Academic Journal
Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis is an extremely common infection and often leads to serious complications including infertility and pelvic inflammatory syndrome. Several broad-spectrum antibiotics are currently used to treat C. trachomatis. Although effective, they also kill beneficial vaginal lactobacilli. Two N-acylhydrazones, CF0001 and CF0002, have been shown previously to inhibit chlamydial growth without toxicity to human cells and Lactobacillus spp. Of particular significance, the rate of random mutation leading to resistance of these inhibitors appears to be extremely low. Here, we report three analogs of CF0001 and CF0002 with significantly stronger inhibitory effects on chlamydiae. Even though the new compounds (termed SF1, SF2 and SF3) displayed slightly decreased inhibition efficiencies for a rare Chlamydia variant selected for CF0001 resistance (Chlamydia muridarum MCR), they completely overcame the resistance when used at concentrations of 75–100 μM. Importantly, SF1, SF2 and SF3 did not shown any toxic effect on lactobacilli, whereas SF3 was also well tolerated by human host cells. An effort to isolate SF3-resistant variants was unsuccessful. By comparison, variants resistant to rifampin or spectinomycin were obtained from smaller numbers of chlamydiae. Our findings suggest that SF3 utilizes an antichlamydial mechanism similar to that of CF0001 and CF0002, and will be more difficult for chlamydiae to develop resistance to, potentially making it a more effective antichlamydial agent.


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