Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon

Polman, A.; Min, B.; Kalkman, J.; Kippenberg, T.J.; Vahala, K.J.
February 2004
Applied Physics Letters;2/16/2004, Vol. 84 Issue 7, p1037
Academic Journal
We present an erbium-doped microlaser on silicon operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm that operates at a launched pump threshold as low as 4.5 μW. The 40 μm diameter toroidal microresonator is made using a combination of erbium ion implantation, photolithography, wet and dry etching, and laser annealing, using a thermally grown SiO[sub 2] film on a Si substrate as a starting material. The microlaser, doped with an average Er concentration of 2×10[sup 19] cm[sup -3], is pumped at 1480 nm using an evanescently coupled tapered optical fiber. Cavity quality factors as high as 3.9×10[sup 7] are achieved, corresponding to a modal loss of 0.007 dB/cm, and single-mode lasing is observed. © 2004 American Institute of Physics.


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