Ca signals, cell membrane disintegration, and activation of TMEM16F during necroptosis

Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Cabrita, Inês; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Krautwald, Stefan; Linkermann, Andreas; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl
January 2017
Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences;Jan2017, Vol. 74 Issue 1, p173
Academic Journal
Activated receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL) are essential components of the necroptotic pathway. Phosphorylated MLKL (pMLKL) is thought to induce membrane leakage, leading to cell swelling and disintegration of the cell membrane. However, the molecular identity of the necroptotic membrane pore remains unclear, and the role of pMLKL for membrane permeabilization is currently disputed. We observed earlier that the phospholipid scramblase and ion channel TMEM16F/anoctamin 6 cause large membrane currents, cell swelling, and cell death when activated by a strong increase in intracellular Ca. We, therefore, asked whether TMEM16F is also central to necroptotic cell death and other cellular events during necroptosis. Necroptosis was induced by TNFα, smac mimetic, and Z-VAD (TSZ) in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and the four additional cell lines HT, 16HBE, H441, and L929. Time-dependent changes in intracellular Ca, cell morphology, and membrane currents were recorded. TSZ induced a small and only transient oscillatory rise in intracellular Ca, which was paralleled by the activation of outwardly rectifying Cl currents, which were typical for TMEM16F/ANO6. Ca oscillations were due to Ca release from endoplasmic reticulum, and were independent of extracellular Ca. The initial TSZ-induced cell swelling was followed by cell shrinkage. Using typical channel blockers and siRNA-knockdown, the Cl currents were shown to be due to the activation of ANO6. However, the knockdown of ANO6 or inhibitors of ANO6 did not inhibit necroptotic cell death. The present data demonstrate the activation of ANO6 during necroptosis, which, however, is not essential for cell death.


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