Therapeutic Resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Role of Non-Coding RNAs

Zebisch, Armin; Hatzl, Stefan; Pichler, Martin; Wölfler, Albert; Sill, Heinz
December 2016
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;Dec2016, Vol. 17 Issue 12, p2080
Academic Journal
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is caused by malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells and displays the most frequent acute leukemia in adults. Although some patients can be cured with high dose chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the majority still succumbs to chemoresistant disease. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-coding RNA fragments and act as key players in the regulation of both physiologic and pathologic gene expression profiles. Aberrant expression of various non-coding RNAs proved to be of seminal importance in the pathogenesis of AML, as well in the development of resistance to chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the role of miRNAs and lncRNAs with respect to sensitivity and resistance to treatment regimens currently used in AML and provide an outlook on potential therapeutic targets emerging thereof.


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