TITLE

Cell Death in Chondrocytes, Osteoblasts, and Osteocytes

AUTHOR(S)
Toshihisa Komori
PUB. DATE
December 2016
SOURCE
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;Dec2016, Vol. 17 Issue 12, p2045
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes. The inflammatory processes induced by mechanical injury and chondrocyte death through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The overexpression of BCLXL increases bone volume with a normal structure and maintains bone during aging by inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis. p53 inhibits osteoblast proliferation and enhances osteoblast apoptosis, thereby reducing bone formation, but also exerts positive effects on osteoblast differentiation through the Akt-FoxOs pathway. Apoptotic osteocytes release ATP, which induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (Rankl) expression and osteoclastogenesis, from pannexin 1 channels. Osteocyte death ultimately results in necrosis; DAMPs are released to the bone surface and promote the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce Rankl expression, and osteoclastogenesis is further enhanced.
ACCESSION #
120516869

 

Related Articles

  • Osteogenic fate of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Yang, Guan; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Ning; Lan, Yu; Wu, Xi-Mei; Zhou, Bin; Teng, Yan; Yang, Xiao // Cell Research;Oct2014, Vol. 24 Issue 10, p1266 

    A letter to the editor is presented on a study conducted on osteoblasts and osteocytes formed by hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral bone formation.

  • Protection of ginsenoside Rg1 on chondrocyte from IL-1β-induced mitochondria-activated apoptosis through PI3K/Akt signaling. Huang, Yumin; Wu, Dongying; Fan, Weimin // Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry;Jul2014, Vol. 392 Issue 1/2, p249 

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is closely related to the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects cells by antagonizing apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rg1 on interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the underlying...

  • Cell Death and Apoptosis in Ostearthritic Cartilage. Kim, H. A.; Blanco, F. J. // Current Drug Targets;Feb2007, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p333 

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease in the elderly population, causing significant pain and disability. Because the cardinal feature of OA is a progressive loss of articular cartilage, a great portion of the research endeavour into the pathogenesis of OA has been focused...

  • Osteoarthritis: Aging of Matrix and Cells - Going for a Remedy. Aigner, T.; Haag, J.; Martin, J.; Buckwalter, J. // Current Drug Targets;Feb2007, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p325 

    It has been known for a very long time that aging is the most prominent risk factor for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. This might be related to continuous mechanical wear and tear and/or result from time/age-related modifications of cartilage matrix components. Also a mere...

  • AICAR Inhibits Palmitate-Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblast via Increase in ERK. Park, So-Young; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon // Diabetes;Jun2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 56, pA236 

    The steady-state number of osteoblast/osteocyte is an important factor for maintaining normal bone density. It has been suggested that hyperlipidemia causes osteoporosis via inflammatory response in osteoblast. However, it is unclear whether apoptosis is involved in hyperlipidemia-induced...

  • SaOS2 Osteosarcoma Cells as an In Vitro Model for Studying the Transition of Human Osteoblasts to Osteocytes. Prideaux, Matthew; Wijenayaka, Asiri; Kumarasinghe, Duminda; Ormsby, Renee; Evdokiou, Andreas; Findlay, David; Atkins, Gerald // Calcified Tissue International;Aug2014, Vol. 95 Issue 2, p183 

    The central importance of osteocytes in regulating bone homeostasis is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the study of these cells has been restricted by the relative paucity of cell line models, especially those of human origin. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which SaOS2 human...

  • Research findings working with the p53 and Rb1 targeted osteosarcoma mouse model. Yaojuan Lu; Gitelis, Steven; Guanghua Lei; Ming Ding; Maki, Carl; Mira, Ranim R.; Qiping Zheng // American Journal of Cancer Research;2014, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p234 

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. The etiology of osteosarcoma is currently unknown. Besides the predominant osteoblasts, the presence of cartilage forming chondrocytes within its tumor tissues suggests a role of chondrogenesis in osteosarcoma...

  • Protein Kinase R: A Novel Mediator of Articular Cartilage Degradation in Arthritis. Gilbert, Sophie J.; Duance, Victor C.; Mason, Deborah J. // Current Rheumatology Reviews;2006, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p9 

    The protein kinase PKR is a key regulator of stress signalling pathways. We found that the PKR activating protein (PACT) is up-regulated in cartilage at the onset of osteoarthritis. PACT activates PKR in response to various cellular stresses such as TNF-α and IL-1. TNF-α also activates PKR...

  • FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CELL DEATH AND VIABILITY OF OSTEOARTHRITIC CHONDROCYTES CULTURED IN PRESENCE OF APOPTOSIS INHIBITORS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING. Takács-Buia, Luminita; Bratosin, Daniela; Gheorghe, Ana-Maria; Iordachel, Catalin; Efimov, Nicolae; Caloianu, Maria; Montreuil, Jean // Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldis Seria Stiintele Vietii (Life ;2009, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p7 

    In autologous cell implantation (ACI), the autologous chondrocytes recovered from the patient are amplified in tissue culture prior to re-implantation. Recently, we demonstrated that a dual mechanism, apoptosis and replicative senescence, could be responsible for pathogenesis of osteoarthritis...

  • Single Cell Confocal Raman Spectroscopy of Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes: A Preliminary Study. Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Gajendra P.; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Afseth, Nils K.; Davies, Catharina de Lange; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B. // International Journal of Molecular Sciences;2015, Vol. 16 Issue 5, following p9341 

    A great deal of effort has been focused on exploring the underlying molecular mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA) especially at the cellular level. We report a confocal Raman spectroscopic investigation on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The objective of this investigation is to identify...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics