Ecological Patterns and Value Orientations in Lebanon

Armstrong, Lincoln; Bashshur, Rashid
September 1958
Public Opinion Quarterly;Fall58, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p406
Academic Journal
The article explores ecological patterns and value orientations in Lebanon. This article presents two specific features, first, a method which has enjoyed some success in measuring certain ecological, demographic and valuational variables and second, data obtained by this method, in a study of Lebanese villagers, which show certain empirical relationships between ecological factors and social values. Rural Lebanon, particularly that part east of the coastal mountain range known as the Bekaa Valley, has much in common with other "underdeveloped" Middle East agricultural areas. This article offers an analysis of relationships between ecological changes suggested above and value orientations of the people undergoing those changes. This study has shown a marked tendency for value orientations to be positively related to such social factors as occupation, religion, rural-urban location and educational level. Differences between urban-type occupations and the rural agricultural occupations are significant for both analysis.


Related Articles

  • Presentación.  // Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural;jul-dic2010, Vol. 7 Issue 65, p9 

    No abstract available.

  • Research on Urban Productive Landscape Practices. Kai Wang; Zongyang Wang; Zheng Wang // Advanced Materials Research;2014, Vol. 962-965, p2460 

    China is undertaking an unprecedented development of rapid urbanization, and a large number of rural people are pouring into cities. It is estimated that the proportion of China's urban population will reach 60% in 2030. In fact, China's ecological environment has already been severely damaged....

  • Improving rural livelihoods as a 'moving target': trajectories of change in smallholder farming systems of Western Kenya. Valbuena, Diego; Groot, Jeroen; Mukalama, John; Gérard, Bruno; Tittonell, Pablo // Regional Environmental Change;Oct2015, Vol. 15 Issue 7, p1395 

    Understanding the diversity of current states, life cycles and past trajectories of households and agroecosystems is essential to contextualise the co-design of more sustainable agroecosystems. The objective of this paper was to document and analyse current states, trajectories of changes and...

  • Move to the city. Webb, Richard // New Scientist;9/19/2009, Vol. 203 Issue 2726, p34 

    The article explores how city dwellers managed to reduced their carbon footprint than their rural counterpart, according to a study by the International Institute for Environment and Development in London, England. It highlights the high possibility for city dwellers to walk, cycle or use public...

  • PERSPECTIVE OF WORLD AGRICULTURE. BRATA, Anca // Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences & Veterinary;2008, Vol. 65 Issue 2, p433 

    The development of agriculture will lead to the growth of rural population's income, a process that will have at least two consequences of major importance: increase of villagers' purchasing power and decreasing of the exodus to town of the labor power -- fact that significantly aggravates,...

  • Indigenous Food Production System and the Impact of Population Growth: Community-Based Examples with Anthropological Evidence. Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul // Asian Social Science;Jul2014, Vol. 10 Issue 12, p59 

    It is reported that 99% of human food on this planet Earth usually comes from terrestrial environment, and the remaining 1% is extracted from other aquatic sources (see FAO, 2002). Thus, it is indicative that land is essentially the most fundamental resource-base for food production and people...

  • Urbanization, Roads, and Rural Population Change in the Ecuadorian Andes. Rudel, Thomas K.; Richards, Samuel // Studies in Comparative International Development;Fall90, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p73 

    Focuses on the demographic dimensions of the urbanization process of Ecuador. Shift in the pattern of rural population change; Net migration ratios; Metropolitan attraction.

  • Guest Editors' Introduction. Jiang, Wenran; Casperson, Tanya // Chinese Economy;May/Jun2005, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p3 

    Introduces a series of articles on the intensifying crisis in China's agriculture, countryside and rural population.

  • Immigrants represent lowest share of farm population.  // Infomat: A Weekly Review;12/5/2003, p3 

    Immigrants accounted for their lowest ever share of Canada's farm population in 2001, according to the final round of data from the Census of Agriculture. More and more, immigrants to Canada have settled in large cities. As a result, during the past 30 years, immigrants have accounted for a...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics