X-Ray Diffraction Technique: Structure Determination of Carbonaceous Materials (Review)

July 2016
Himija v Interesah Ustojchivogo Razvitija;2016, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p569
Academic Journal
X-ray powder diffraction is one of the most potential characterization tools and a nondestructive technique for characterizing carbon based materials and their composite properties. The method is used to measure phase identification, quantitative analysis and to determine structure imperfections of samples. The paper summarizes results of investigations of carbonaceous materials structure. X-ray diffraction is used as the technique for characterizing the structural order. As it turned out the carbonaceous materials obtained by the low-temperature graphitization of coal-tar pitch contain contemporaneously several phases of crystalline carbon and amorphous carbon with turbostratic structure. In the present report, to explain the heterogeneous structure of carbonaceous materials we compare data of X-ray diffraction analysis for the (00l) reflection from the main crystal face. It was found that the (002) and (004) reflections are the superpositions of components, which correspond to the structural phases of crystalline carbon and amorphous carbon with different interplanar spacing. The ratio between the integrated intensities of separated reflection components accounts for the ratio between these phases; along with interplanar spacing, this ratio characterizes carbonaceous materials and makes it possible to detect difference between them. The degree of ordering, the interlayer spacing (d002), and the crystalline sizes (La and Lc) are considered the key parameters for evaluating the stacking structure of carbonaceous materials.


Related Articles

  • Carbothermal reduction of calcined and mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore. Çil, Gökhan; Yıldız, Kenan // Turkish Online Journal of Science & Technology;2014, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p1 

    The carbothermal reduction of calcined and mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore with graphite under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1300°C and the effects of mechanical activation on the ore structure were analysed by X-ray diffraction, scanning...

  • Structural Characterization of Selected Indian Coals by X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopic Techniques. Manoj, B.; Kunjomana, A. G. // Trends in Applied Sciences Research;Jun2012, Vol. 7 Issue 6, p434 

    The structural parameters of three Indian coals were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS. This study reveals that the coals contain crystalline carbon of turbo- stratic structure with some amount of amorphous carbon. The average lateral sizes (La), stacking...

  • Distribution of the 13C Isotope in Petroleum Components according to X-ray Diffraction. Korolev, Yu. M. // Doklady Physical Chemistry;May2004, Vol. 396 Issue 1-3, p108 

    Examines the correlation between the 13C concentration and the content of a pseudographite constituent in the petroleum components. X-ray diffraction characteristics of petroleum components; Mass spectrometry; Phase concentration; Carbon isotope composition in sediments and carbonates; Effect of...

  • Effect of the substrate surface condition on the Ni(thin film)/SiC(0001) interfacial reaction. Dean, Cory R.; Robbie, Kevin; Madsen, Lynnette D. // Journal of Materials Research;Sep2007, Vol. 22 Issue 9, p24 

    The effect of the substrate surface, structure, and chemistry on the interfacial interaction in Ni(thin film)/SiC was examined, with a focus on the recently discovered formation of a nickel intercalated graphite phase. Very thin Ni films (~7 nm) were deposited onto heated 6H-SiC(0001) substrates...

  • Theoretical X-ray absorption investigation of the uniaxial compression of hexagonal graphite. Shaw, Dawn M.; Odelius, Michael; Tse, John S. // Canadian Journal of Chemistry;Oct2007, Vol. 85 Issue 10, p837 

    The X-ray absorption (XAS) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra for the intermediate structures along uniaxial c-axis compression of hexagonal graphite are studied with the first-principles pseudopotential plane wave method. Comparison with experiment is made whenever results are...

  • Investigation on carbonizing behaviors of nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles dispersed on alumina particles by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in fluidized bed. Hao-Tung Lin; Jow-Lay Huang; Wen-Tse Lo; Wei, Wen-Cheng J. // Journal of Materials Research;Aug2005, Vol. 20 Issue 8, p2154 

    Nanoscaled Cr2O3 powder with an average particle size of 20-40 nm, coated on alumina particles, has been produced by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized chamber, using the pyrolysis of Cr(CO)6 precursor. Amorphous and crystalline Cr2O3 particles were obtained when the...

  • X-ray diffraction studies of imperfect crystals by the example of fluorinated graphites. Alexeyev, A. V.; Danilenko, A. M.; Cherepanova, S. V.; Gromilov, S. A. // Journal of Structural Chemistry;Dec2012 Supplement, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p47 

    An X-ray diffraction technique for the study of imperfect crystals of natural graphite and its fluorinated products is proposed. The diffraction patterns measured are free from the preferred orientation effect and provide the simulation based on a 1D disordered crystal.

  • Foreword.  // Journal of Chemical Sciences;Sep2014, Vol. 126 Issue 5, p1237 

    No abstract available.

  • Effect of crystal orientation agents on morphology of nano-CaCO3. Cheng Xiangwei; Xiong Dajin; Huo Chao // Applied Mechanics & Materials;2014, Vol. 723, p544 

    Using intermittent bubbling carbonation method to prepare nano-CaCO3, the effect of crystal orientation agents on the morphology of nano-CaCO3 was studied. The nano-CaCO3 was characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Laser particle...

  • Influence of the Support Crystal Structure of WO/Au Catalysts in CO Oxidation. Firkala, Tamás; Fórizs, Balázs; Drotár, Eszter; Tompos, András; Tóth, Attila; Varga-Josepovits, Katalin; László, Krisztina; Leskelä, Markku; Szilágyi, Imre // Catalysis Letters;May2014, Vol. 144 Issue 5, p831 

    Gold nanoparticles (partially below 5 nm in diameter) were successfully deposited on hexagonal and monoclinic WO supports by deposition-precipitation, which had been considered previously not feasible owing to the low isoelectronic point of WO. The catalysts were characterized by TEM, SEM,...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics