严正娟; 陈硕; 周怀平; 杨振兴; 陈清
June 2016
Journal of Agro-Environment Science;2016, Vol. 35 Issue 6, p1110
Academic Journal
In intensive farming regions of China, high rates of manure applications to arable field over years have caused high phosphorus(P)accumulation in soil and the associated environmental risks. Here a long-term field experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of manure applications on rates of soil P accumulation and the degree of P saturation(DPS) increase, i.e., the increment in soil P content or DPS per 1 kg P surplus, in an effort to develop guidelines for rational P management and non-point source pollution reduction. Results showed that 22 years of continuous excessive P inputs increased soil P content and DPS. In 0~20 cm soil depth, soil P and DPS increased linearly with increasing P surplus. Compared with single chemical fertilizer application, manure incorporation had no significant effects on the ratios of soil total P increments to P surplus increments, but significantly increased the ratios of soil available P and DPS to P surplus increments. The increases in soil Olsen-P, CaCl2-P, and DPS per 1 kg P surplus were 0.071 mg P·kg-1(r=0.608, P=0.029), 0.003 mg P·kg-1(r=0.528, P=0.066), and 0.036%(r=0.863, P=0.002) in the 0~20 cm soil depth under manure incorporations each year, which were 3.3-, 6.0- and 1.2-fold greater than those under single chemical fertilizer application, respectively. The changes of soil DPS also increased linearly with the changes of soil P. In the 0~20 cm soil depth, the increments in DPS per 1 mg P·kg-1 increase in total P, Olsen-P, and CaCl2-P were 0.13%, 0.42%, and 7.78%, each year, respectively. In 20~40 cm soil depth, there was no significant linear correlation between the increases of soil P, DPS and P surplus. However, the difference of increase rates between manure incorporation and single chemical fertilizer application tended to be greater in 20~40 cm soil depth than in 0~20 cm depth, suggesting that manure applications favored the movement of P to subsoil. Manure applications accelerated the increases of soil available P and DPS, which in turn promoted the losses of P. In conclusion, rational manure management is the key to mitigating non-point source pollution in intensive farming areas.


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