Low-temperature hydrophobic silicon wafer bonding

Tong, Q.-Y.; Gan, Q.; Hudson, G.; Fountain, G.; Enquist, P.; Scholz, R.; Gösele, U.
December 2003
Applied Physics Letters;12/8/2003, Vol. 83 Issue 23, p4767
Academic Journal
By introducing a nanometer-scale H trapping defective silicon layer on bonding surfaces, the bonding surface energy of bonded oxide-free, HF dipped, hydrophobic silicon wafers can reach a silicon fracture surface energy of 2500 mJ/m[sup 2] at 300 to 400 °C compared with 700 °C conventionally achieved. Adding boron atoms on bonding surfaces can reduce the surface hydrogen release temperature but would not increase the bonding energy unless a defective layer is also formed. This indicates that, in order to achieve high bonding energy, the released hydrogen must be removed from the bonding interface. Many prebonding treatments are available for low-temperature hydrophobic wafer bonding including the formation of an amorphous silicon layer by As[sup +] implantation, by B[sub 2]H[sub 6] or Ar plasma treatment, or by sputter deposition, followed by an HF dip and room temperature bonding in air. The interface amorphous layer may be recrystallized by annealing at elevated temperatures, e.g., at 450 °C for As[sup +]-implanted samples. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.


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