Distinctive features of the microbial diversity and the polyketide synthase genes spectrum in the community of the endemic Baikal sponge Swartschewskia papyracea

Kaluzhnaya, O.; Itskovich, V.
January 2016
Russian Journal of Genetics;Jan2016, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p38
Academic Journal
The diversity of the symbiotic community of the endemic Baikal sponge Swartschewskia papyracea was studied, and an analysis of the polyketide synthases genes spectrum in sponge-associated microorganisms was carried out. Six bacterial phyla were detected in the S. papyracea microbiome: Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Unlike the microbial associations of other freshwater sponges, the community under study was dominated by the phylaVerrucomicrobia (42.1%) and Cyanobacteria (17.5%), while the proportion of the Proteobacteria was unusually low (9.7%). In the S. papyracea community metagenome, there were identified 18 polyketide synthases genes fragments, the closest homologues of which included the polyketide synthases of the microorganisms belonging to the bacterial phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria (classes Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria), and Acidobacteria as well as the eukaryotic algae of the phylum Heterokonta (class Eustigmatophyceae). Polyketide synthase sequences from S. papyracea formed three groups on the phylogenetic tree: a group of hybrid NRPS/PKS complexes, a group of cyanobacterial polyketide synthases, and a group of homologues of the eukaryotic alga Nannochloropsis gaditana. Notably, the identified polyketide synthase genes fragments showed only a 57-88% similarity to the sequences from the databases, which implies the presence of genes controlling the synthesis of the novel, still unstudied, polyketide compounds in the S. papyracea community. It was proposed that the habitat conditions of S. papyracea affect the taxonomic composition of the microorganisms associated with the sponge, including the diversity of the producers of secondary metabolites.


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