Tensile stress in hard metal films

Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Dammers, A. J.; Sivel, V. G. M.; Wang, W. R.
October 2003
Applied Physics Letters;10/20/2003, Vol. 83 Issue 16, p3287
Academic Journal
Thin films on substrates are usually in a stressed state. An important, but trivial, contribution to that stress stems from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and film. Much more interesting are the intrinsic stresses, resulting from the growth and/or microstructure of the film. Intrinsic compressive stress was explained by d’Heurle in 1970. Intrinsic tensile stress for recrystallizing metal films was treated succesfully by Doljack and Hoffman in 1972. In the present letter we explain the occurrence of tensile stress in nonrecrystallizing metal films. The explanation is based on modern grain growth models and accurate stress measurements. The key ingredient to the explanation is the proof of the existence of a stress gradient in nonrecrystallizing metal films. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.


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