Hexagonal Ferrite Fibres and Nanofibres

Pullar, Robert C.
April 2016
Solid State Phenomena;2016, Vol. 241, p1
Academic Journal
Hexagonal ferrites, or hexaferrites, are hugely important materials commercially and technologically, with common applications as permanent magnets, magnetic recording and data storage media, components in electrical devices operating at wireless frequencies, and as GHz electromagnetic wave absorbers for EMC, RAM and stealth technologies. Hexaferrites are all ferrimagnetic materials, and their magnetic properties are intrinsically linked to their crystalline structures, all having a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy; that is the induced magnetisation has a preferred orientation within the crystal structure. They can be divided into two main groups: those with an easy axis of magnetisation (known as uniaxial), the hard hexaferrites, and those with an easy plane (or cone) of magnetisation (known as ferroxplana or hexaplana), soft ferrites. The common hexaferrite members are: * M-type ferrites, such as BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 * Z-type ferrites (Ba3Me2Fe24O41) * Y-type ferrites (Ba2Me2Fe12O22) * W-type ferrites (BaMe2Fe16O27) * X-type ferrites (Ba2Me2Fe28O46) * U-type ferrites (Ba4Me2Fe36O60) where Me = a small 2+ ion such as cobalt, nickel or zinc, and Ba can be fully substituted by Sr. Generally, the M ferrites are hard, the Y, Z and U ferrites are soft, and the W and X ferrites can very between these two extremes, but all have large magnetisation (M) values. There is currently increasing interest in composite materials containing hexaferrite fibres. It had been predicted that properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, and magnetic, electrical and optical behaviour will be enhanced in material in fibrous form. This is because a continuous fine fibre can be considered as effectively one-dimensional, and it does not behave as a homogeneously distributed solid. Although the intrinsic magnetisation of the material is unaffected, the effective magnetisation of an aligned fibre sample should be greater when a field is applied parallel with fibre alignment compared to when applied perpendicularly to fibre alignment. This feature was first demonstrated by the author for aligned hexaferrite fibres in 2006. This chapter will deal with progress in the manufacture and properties of hexaferrite fibres, from the first syntheses of BaM, SrM, Co2Y, Co2Z, Co2W, Co2X and Co2U micron-scale fibres by the author 12-15 years ago, to recent developments in M ferrite hollow fibres and nanofibres, and hexaferrite-coated CNTs (carbon nanotubes).The relative properties of all reported hexaferrite fibres are compared and summarised at the end of this chapter.


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