Avalanche ballistic electron emission microscopy with single hot-electron sensitivity

Heller, E.R.; Tivarus, C.; Pelz, J.P.
October 2003
Applied Physics Letters;10/6/2003, Vol. 83 Issue 14, p2841
Academic Journal
We discuss an implementation of ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM), in which the metallic or metal–insulator “stack” of interest is formed directly over an avalanche p–n diode. This allows nanometer-resolution studies of hot-electron transport through technologically important device stacks with up to single electron sensitivity and >10 kHz measurement bandwidth when the avalanche diode is cooled to <200 K. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.


Related Articles

  • How to choose avalanche photodiodes. MacGregor, Andrew; Melle, Serge // Laser Focus World;Oct95, Vol. 31 Issue 10, p145 

    Offers tips on choosing avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Definition of APDs; Choosing the right detector; APD applications. INSET: Calculating APD spectral noise and excess.., by A.M. & S.M..

  • Avalanche-photodiode modules operate on 5 volts.  // Electronic Design;9/16/93, Vol. 41 Issue 19, p58 

    Features Hamamatsu Corp.'s C5331 Series avalanche-photodiode sensor modules. Components; Applications; Specifications; Prices; Contact information.

  • Performance comparison of a single-photon avalanche diode with a microchannel-plate photomultiplier in time-correlated single-photon counting. Louis, T.; Schatz, G. H.; Klein-Bölting, P.; Holzwarth, A. R.; Ripamonti, G.; Cova, S. // Review of Scientific Instruments;Jul1988, Vol. 59 Issue 7, p1148 

    A silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector and a proximity-focus-type microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) are compared with respect to their performance in time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) applications. A solution of pinacyanol...

  • Photon-assisted avalanche spreading in reach-through photodiodes. Lacaita, A.; Cova, S.; Spinelli, A.; Zappa, F. // Applied Physics Letters;2/8/1993, Vol. 62 Issue 6, p606 

    Investigates the spreading of the avalanche process in reach-through photodiodes. Role of photons emitted from hot carrier relaxations in the avalanche dynamics; Measurement of the avalanche current; Ways to assess the magnitude of the photon-assisted effect.

  • Saturation of multiplication factor in InGaAsP/InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiodes. Kagawa, Toshiaki; Kawamura, Yuichi; Iwamura, Hidetoshi // Applied Physics Letters;3/8/1993, Vol. 62 Issue 10, p1122 

    Examines the saturation of the multiplication factor in indium gallium arsenic phosphide/indium aluminum arsenide superlattice avalanche photodiodes. Correlation between the multiplication factor and illumination intensity; Impact of intense illumination on photodiodes; Dependence of space...

  • A prototype high-resolution animal positron tomograph with avalanche photodiode arrays and LSO crystals. Ziegler, Sibylle I.; Pichler, Bernd J.; Boening, Guido; Rafecas, Magdalena; Pimpl, Wendelin; Lorenz, Eckart; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwaiger, Markus // European Journal of Nuclear Medicine;2001, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p136 

    Abstract. To fully utilize positron emission tomography (PET) as a non-invasive tool for tissue characterization, dedicated instrumentation is being developed which is specially suited for imaging mice and rats. Semiconductor detectors, such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs), may offer an...

  • Silicon carbide diode operating at avalanche breakdown current density of 60 kA/cm2. Vassilevski, K. V.; Dmitriev, V. A.; Zorenko, A. V. // Journal of Applied Physics;12/15/1993, Vol. 74 Issue 12, p7612 

    Presents information on a study which described the fabrication of silicon carbide diode operating at high avalanche breakdown current. Methods; Results; Discussion.

  • Breakdown characteristics in InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with p-i-n multiplication layer... Hyun, Kyung-Sook; Park, Chan-Yong // Journal of Applied Physics;1/15/1997, Vol. 81 Issue 2, p974 

    Investigates breakdown voltages in indium phosphate/indium gallium arsenide (InP/IGaAs) avalanche photodiode (APD). Minimum point of breakdown voltage at each carrier concentration in charge plate; Avalanche photodiode with very thin multiplication layer width; Variation in breakdown voltages...

  • InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes Enable CWDM-Based Metropolitan Area Networks. Dries, J. Christopher; Harkey,, David W. // ECN: Electronic Component News;Sep2001, Vol. 45 Issue 10, p95 

    Focuses on the usefulness of avalanche photodiodes for CWDM-based metropolitan area electric networks in the United States. Process in acquiring avalanche; Accounts of US network; Cost advantages.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics