Virus infection in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: incidence in the context of immune recovery in two different transplantation settings

Tischer, Johanna; Engel, Nicole; Fritsch, Susanne; Prevalsek, Dusan; Hubmann, Max; Schulz, Christoph; Zoellner, Anna-K.; Bücklein, Veit; Reibke, Roland; Mumm, Friederike; Rieger, Christina; Hill, Wolfgang; Ledderose, Georg; Stemmler, Hans; Köhnke, Thomas; Jäger, Gundula; Kolb, Hans; Schmid, Christoph; Moosmann, Andreas; Hausmann, Andreas
October 2015
Annals of Hematology;Oct2015, Vol. 94 Issue 10, p1677
Academic Journal
We retrospectively compared the incidence of virus infections and outcome in the context of immune reconstitution in two different HLA-haploidentical transplantation (haplo-HSCT) settings. The first was a combined T-cell-replete and T-cell-deplete approach using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) prior to transplantation in patients with hematological diseases (cTCR/TCD group, 28 patients; median age 31 years). The second was a T-cell-replete (TCR) approach using high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (TCR/PTCY group, 27 patients; median age 43 years). The incidence of herpesvirus infection was markedly lower in the TCR/PTCY (22 %) than in the cTCR/TCD group (93 %). Recovery of CD4+ T cells on day +100 was faster in the TCR/PTCY group. CMV reactivation was 30 % in the TCR/PTCY compared to 57 % in the cTCR/TCD group, and control with antiviral treatment was superior after TCR/PTCY transplantation (100 vs 50 % cTCR/TCD). Twenty-five percent of the patients in the cTCR/TCD group but no patient in the TCR/PTCY group developed PTLD. While 1-year OS was not different (TCR/PTCY 59 % vs cTCR/TCD 39 %; p = 0.28), virus infection-related mortality (VIRM) was significantly lower after TCR/PTCY transplantation (1-year VIRM, 0 % TCR/PTCY vs 29 % cTCR/TCD; p = 0.009). On day +100, predictors of better OS were lymphocytes >300/μl, CD3+ T cells >200/μl, and CD4+ T cells >150/μl, whereas the application of steroids >1 mg/kg was correlated with worse outcome. Our results suggest that by presumably preserving antiviral immunity and allowing fast immune recovery of CD4+ T cells, the TCR approach using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide is well suited to handle the important issue of herpesvirus infection after haplo-HSCT.


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