Major decrease in malaria transmission on Mayotte Island

Maillard, Olivier; Lernout, Tinne; Olivier, Sophie; Achirafi, Aboubacar; Aubert, Lydéric; Lepère, Jean François; Thiria, Julien; Pagès, Frédéric; Filleul, Laurent
August 2015
Malaria Journal;Aug2015, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
Background: Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most malaria cases on Mayotte Island, in the Comorian Archipelago. Malaria is endemic and a major public health problem in the archipelago with an intense, stable and permanent transmission. This study reports results of 8 years of malaria surveillance from 2007 to 2014 after the strengthening of malaria control activities in Mayotte and the neighbouring islands. Methods: Surveillance was based on physicians' reports of malaria cases between January 2007 and December 2014. Malaria cases were confirmed by at least a positive rapid diagnostic test and/or demonstration of Plasmodium sp. in a blood smear. The date, and the patients' age, sex, address, presentation of symptoms, biology, treatment and recent history of travel were collected by verbal questioning during consultation and/or hospitalization. Monthly rainfall data were also compiled during the study period. Results: From 2007 to 2014, 2073 cases were reported on Mayotte Island: 977 imported cases, 807 autochthonous cases and 289 cases of unknown origin. The total malaria annual parasite incidence lowered from 3.0 in 2007 to 0.07 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2014 as the autochthonous malaria incidence decreased from 1.6 to 0.004 per 1,000 inhabitants in the same period and in all age groups. Most of the imported cases came from Comoros (94 %). Severe forms represented approximately 11 % of cases, and only two deaths have been recorded among the imported cases. Approximately 19 % of cases were hospitalized (3 % in an intensive care unit). There is clearly a decrease in malaria transmission in Mayotte since 2007 and the goal of elimination seems more achievable than ever. In 2011, Mayotte entered the elimination phase when P. falciparum API passed under 1 case per 1,000 people at risk. Conclusions: The combination of vector control measures, active surveillance and case management, including effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy, has been essential to achieve a present status of low and decreasing malaria transmission on the island. Mayotte has entered the elimination phase, but some goals remain to be accomplished before a programme re-orientation toward malaria elimination is contemplated. Moreover, a regional management policy is crucial because this would allow control measures to be targeted and based on a regional surveillance-response system rather than isolated.



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