Weiss, Dorota; Kaczmarek, Anna; Stangierski, Jerzy
July 2015
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria;Jul-Sep2015, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p199
Academic Journal
Background. Food spoilage is a process in which the quality parameters decrease and products are no longer edible. This is a cumulative effect of bacteria growth and their metabolite production, which is a factor limiting shelf life. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether microbiological growth models for total viable count (TVC) and Clostridium strain bacteria are reliable tools for prediction of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted for two types of bacteria: TVC and Clostridium in following temperature: 8°C, 20°C and 30°C. A total number of aerobic bacteria was determined based on standard PN-EN ISO 4833:2004 and Clostridium was detected by using microbiological procedure for sulphite-reducing anaerobic spore-bacteria with a selective nourishment. During the analysis nonlinear regression and Baranyi and Roberts primary model were used. Results. For temperatures 20°C and 30°C, Baranyi and Roberts model, for total viable count showed determination coefficient of 70%. The models prepared for Clostridium, in these temperatures, showed much lower R², respectively 25% and 30%. At the abovementioned temperatures also the expiration of product shelf life was much shorter and amounted 70 days at 20°C and 7 days at 30°C. For both types of bacteria incubated at 8°C the numbers of bacteria decrease until the expiration of product shelf life. Conclusions. Models used in the analyses, Baranyi and Roberts and nonlinear regression, poorly matched the experimental data, hence they are not reliable tools. Nevertheless, they gave information about dynamic of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese. Wstęp. Jednym z elementów prowadzących do utraty przydatności do spożycia żywności jest proces zmian mikrobiologicznych. Efektem zepsucia mikrobiologicznego żywności jest niebezpieczne obniżenie jakości lub całkowite wyeliminowanie produktu z obrotu. Wynika to ze wzrostu ilości bakterii oraz produkcji przez nie niebezpiecznych metabolitów. Często zmiany skutkują również ograniczeniem trwałości przechowalniczej produktów spożywczych. Celem badań była ocena czy modele wzrostu ogólnej liczby bakterii oraz Clostridium są niezawodnym narzędziem prognozowania zmian mikrobiologicznych w smarowalnym serze topionym. Materiał i metody. Badania przeprowadzono w temperaturach 8°C, 20°C i 30°C dla dwóch rodzajów bakterii: ogólnej liczby bakterii oraz Clostridium. Zastosowano następujące procedury mikrobiologiczne: PN-EN ISO 4833:2004 dla ogólnej liczby drobnoustrojów oraz procedurę oznaczenia najbardziej prawdopodobnej liczby bakterii beztlenowych redukujących siarczyny z wykorzystaniem pożywki selektywnej. W analizach posłużono się regresją nieliniową oraz modelem pierwszorzędowym Baranyiego i Robertsa. Wyniki. Model Baranyiego i Robertsa uzyskał współczynnik determinacji na poziomie 70% dla ogólnej liczby bakterii w temperaturach 20°C i 30°C. Model przygotowany dla Clostridium w powyższych temperaturach uzyskał znacznie mniejsze wartości R2, odpowiednio 25% i 30%. Natomiast przydatność do spożycia produktu uległa znacznemu skróceniu, wynosząc 70 dni w 20°C i 7 dni w 30°C. Dla obu grup bakterii inkubowanych w 8°C liczba bakterii zmniejszała się aż do upłynięcia terminu przydatności produktu. Wnioski. Zastosowane w analizie modele Baranyiego i Robertsa oraz regresja nieliniowa nie odzwierciedlają w sposób satysfakcjonujący rzeczywistego wzrostu bakterii, nie są więc niezawodnym narzędziem prognozującym. Niemniej jednak pozwalają na określenie dynamiki wzrostu bakterii w serach topionych.


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