The enhanced and optimal piezoelectric coefficients in single crystalline barium titanate with engineered domain configurations

Liu, Dan; JiangYu Li, Dan
August 2003
Applied Physics Letters;8/11/2003, Vol. 83 Issue 6, p1193
Academic Journal
In this letter, we report a micromechanical analysis to explain the enhanced piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectric single crystals poled along a nonpolar axis, where the coexistence of several variants leads to a complicated domain configuration. The engineered domain configuration in the crystal is constructed first using energy minimization approach, and the effective moduli of single crystal with engineered domain configuration is then determined using homogenization theory. Following this procedure, we calculate the effective electromechanical moduli of tetragonal barium titanate poled along [111] direction, where the piezoelectric coefficient d[sub 33] is found to be 70% higher than those poled along [001], consistent with experimental observation. Piezoelectric coefficient d[sub 32] is also found to be 114% higher. In addition, we notice that poling along [111] direction does not lead to the optimal domain configuration, since barium titanate poled along [110] direction has much higher d[sub 32] and d[sub 33]. The analysis reveals that much higher electromechanical coupling can be obtained in ferroelectric crystals with engineered domain configurations, and offers insight on the design and optimization of ferroelectrics for enhanced functional properties. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.


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