A History of Lumbar Disc Herniation From Hippocrates to the 1990s

Truumees, Eeric
June 2015
Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research;Jun2015, Vol. 473 Issue 6, p1885
Academic Journal
In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with lumbar disc herniation. In this era, use of discectomy surgery increased rapidly. Even patients with very early symptoms were offered surgery. Later work, especially by Weber and Hakelius, showed that many patients with lumbar disc herniation would improve without surgical intervention. In the ensuing decades, the debate over operative indications and timing continued, reaching another pivotal moment with the 2006 publication of the initial results of Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial.


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